“Aku bersyukur dilahirkan di Indonesia, dimana senyum masih menjadi karakter, budaya masih apik terjaga, dan optimisme masih menyulut semangat. Aku berharap, anak-anakku kelak harus lebih bangga dariku dalam memandang dan memperjuangkan Indonesianya. Jaya Selalu Negeriku Indonesia, Jayalah Selama-lamanya”


Ø TRI AJENG ANGGRAENI  (201210360311001)
Ø ANDIANA HIKMAWATI  (201210360311003)

.    The Term of Management
          Management is an activity or process. More specifically, management is the process of assembling and using sets of  resources in a goal-directed manner to accomplish task in an organization. In addition to being “a process” or set of activities, management can also have several other meanings. The term sometimes designates a particular part of the organization: the set of individuals who carry out management activity.
B.     Managerial Challenges

The nature of the environment in which managers operate requires that they manage change effectively. Managers are responsible for managing resources-financial, human, and otherwise. To ensure that their organization is competitive and survive in a rapidly changing environment, they must manage strategically. Because of the major changes occurring rapidly in the business world today, managers must be entrepreneurial and innovative.
Kind of managerial challenges:
1.      Managing Change
Managing change is the most persistent, pervasive, and powerful challenge with which all managers have to deal, regardless of the nature of their organization or its location.
2.      Managing Resources
The manager must ensure the efficient use of resources in ways that maximize achieving the organization’s goals. Among the resources important to manager are financial capital, human capital, physical resources, and technology.
3.      Managing Srategically
Managerial challenges create an incredibly complex, dinamyc, and competitive landscape in which most managers must operate. To survive and perform well in such an environment, managers throughout the organization need to manage strategically. To adapt to this change, managers should be innovative and entrepreneurial, continuously searching for new opportunities.

4.      Managing Entrepreneurially
Entrepreneurship involves identifying new opportunities and exploiting them. To be entrepreneurial, managers must develop an entrepreneurial mind-set. An entrepreneurial mind-set is a way of thinking about business that emphasizes actions to take advantages of uncertainty.

C.   Hitorical Approches to Management

Long ago, management was already being practiced in many parts of the world. The pyramids, for example, were designed and built in Egypt thousands of year ago. The origins of what is often to as “modern management” are found in the Industrial Revolution, which began in England in the mid-eighteenth century and later spread to the United States and other regions of the world. Many other people have contributed to modern management theory and practice over the course of the last two centuries.
·       Frank and Lillian Gilberth
Who developed the beginning of time and motion studies to determine the most efficient manner in which to complete task.
·      Alfred P. Sloan and Chester Barnard
Both contributed to our knowledge of how to build an efficient and effective organization.
·         Mary Parker Follet and Douglas McGregor
Focused on the importance and value of leadership in organization
·         Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg
Made major contributions to our knowledge of motivation that continue to be present in managerial practices today.

D.   The Primary Managerial Function
The four principal managerial functions most applicable to modern organization are planning, organizing, directing, and controlling.

1.         Planning
Planning involves estimating future conditions and circumstances and, based on these estimations, making decisions about the work of the manager and for all employes for whom she or he is responsible.
2.         Organizing
To conduct managerial work, resources, must be integrated systematically, and this function is called organizing.
3.         Directing
This function has typically had a number of different labels over the years. Directing is the process of attempting to influence other people to attain the organization’s objectives
4.         Controlling
The word controlling sometimes has a negative connotation. Control is a necessary and important managerial function. The essence of this function is to regulate the work of those for whom a manager is responsible.

E.     Managerial Roles
Ø  Interpersonal  Roles, interpersonal roles are composed of three types of behavior and derived directly from the manager’s formal authority granted by the organization. They are:
1.      The Figurehead Role
This set of behaviors emphasizes ceremonial activities, such as attending a social function, welcoming a visiting dignitary, or presiding at a farewell reception for a departing employee.
2.      The Leader Role
This role involves influencing or directing others. It is the set of responsibilities people typically associate eith a manager’s job, as the organization gives the manager formal authority over the work of others.
3.      The Laison Role
This role emphasizes a manager’s contacts with those outside the formal chain of command. These contacts include not only other managers within the organization but also such external individuals as customers, suppliers, government, officials, and manager from other organization.

Ø  Informational Roles, this set of roles builds on the interpersonal relationship that a manager establishes, and it underscores the importance of the network of contacts a manager builds and maintain
1.      The Monitor Role
This type of behavior involves extensive information seeking in which managers engage to remain aware of crucial developments that may affect their units and their own work.
2.      The Disseminator Role
A manager not only receives information but also sends it. This often includes information that the receiver want but otherwise has no easy access to without to help of the manager.

3.      The Spokesperson Role
A manager is frequently called upon to represent the views of  the unit for which he or she is responsible. At lower management levels, this typically involves representing the unit to other individuals or groups within the organization.

Ø  Decisional Roles, the final category in the typology of roles relates to the decision-making requirements of a manager’s job.
1.      The Entrepreneurial Role
Managers not only make routine decisions in their jobs but also frequently engage in activities that explore new opportunities or start new projects.
2.      The Disturbance Handler Role
Managers initiate actions of their own, but they must also respond to problems or “disturbances”. In this role, a manager often acts as a judge, proble solver, or conflict manager.
3.      The Resource Allocator Role
Because resources must be managed efficiently in organization and slack rarely exist, an important responsibility of managers is deciding how to distribute resources. Allocation decisions have a direct effect on a units’s performance and indirectly communicate information to employees about the relative importance of the firm’s activities.
4.      The Negotiator Role
Inthis decisional situation, managers are responsible for knowing what resources they can or cannot commit to particular negotiated solutions.

F.     Managerial Job Dimensions
Three dimensions characterize a managerial job:
-          The demands made on it
(this dimensions of managements refers to what the holder of a particular managerial position must do)
-          The constraints placed on it
(factors that limit a manager’s response to various demands)
-          The choices permitted in it
(this dimension underscores the fact that despite demands and constraints, managers always have the opportunity to exercise discretion)

G.  Manager’s Skill
1.     Technical Skills
Technical skills involve having specialized knowledge about procedures, processes, and equipment, and include knowing how and when to use that knowledge.
2.      Interpersonal Skills
Interpersonal skills such as sensitivity, persuasiveness, and emphaty are important at all levels of management, although particularly so at lower and middle levels.
3.      Conceptual Skills
Often called cognitive ability or cognitive complexity, conceptual skills such as logical reasoning, judgment, and analytical abilities are a relatively strong predict of managerial effectiveness.

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