“Aku bersyukur dilahirkan di Indonesia, dimana senyum masih menjadi karakter, budaya masih apik terjaga, dan optimisme masih menyulut semangat. Aku berharap, anak-anakku kelak harus lebih bangga dariku dalam memandang dan memperjuangkan Indonesianya. Jaya Selalu Negeriku Indonesia, Jayalah Selama-lamanya”

Pengantar Studi Perdamaian dan Resolusi Konflik


Basis ontologis dan epistemologis
Ontologis: esensi, substansi  dan hakikat peace is the absence of war? damai adalah tidak ada kekerasan?
Kajian tentang perdamaian is more deeper than just politics, tetapi menyangkut totalitas kehidupan dalam berbagai level
Seperti studi kesehatan; sistem (aktor/sel) sakit/sehat = kekerasan/perdamaian
Ada diagnosis terhadap gejala penyakit dalam sistem (ada aktor atau sel yg tumbuh diluar keseimbangan/proposisià ada prognosis (sesuai konteks dan kondisi, apakah sistem yang diindikasi sakit bisa menyembuhkan diri sendiri?)à therapy (pengobatan) upaya sengaja menyembuhkan(baik dengan intervensi atau tidak).
Terapi bisa bersifat kuratif (dlm sistem yg tdk stabil)atau preventif (dlm sistem yg stabil).
Scope :
  The scope of peace studies involves learning theories of conflict and processes of conflict resolution, preventions etc, and also incorporates countless other academic disciplines from psychology, politics and sociology to economics and international relations.
  Peace studies programs are interdiciplinary and seek to broaden the study of international security to include social and economic factors.
  Broadening Focus: In IR, peace studies seeks to shift the focus not only connects war an peace in inter-state level but also individual, domestic and global levels of analysis

Negative peace and positive peace :
  Negative peace refers to practices such as peacekeeping—activities that take place in a post-war situation like monitoring peace processes and helping former foes implement their peace agreements.
  Positive peace refers to a peace that resolves the underlying reasons for war-peace that is not just a cease-fire but a transformation of relationships. Positive peace refers to peace building and peace making activities—strengthening societies so that structures and systems are in place to make violent conflict less likely
  Under positive peace, not only do state armies stop fighting each other, but they stop forming death squads against internal protest, see broad social and economic issues, human right and structural violence (ex.global North-South disparity)
Epistemologi studi perdamaian :
  1. Kajian Keilmuan
  2. Kajian Penelitian
  3. Gerakan Perdamaian
Kajian Keilmuan:
  Immanuel Kant (1724-1804): “perpetual peace” required the transformation of individual consciousness, republican constitutionalism, &contract between states to abolish war
  In To Perpetual Peace, Kant argues that the emergence of republican states (representative democracies) is crucial for realizing peace: "[IfJ a powerful and enlightened people should form a republic ... , it will provide a focal point for a federal association among other nations that will join it in order to guarantee a state of peace among nations ... , and through several associations of this sort such a federation can extend further and further
  Kant's view that democracy is a crucial contributing factor to international peace
  Hugo Grotius (1583-1645):human beings possess reason, goodness, sociability, and the ability to learn and improve. Ex: international law
  Refleksi moralnya tercermin dari beberapa pandangan idealist Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, dan David Lloyd George, dalam fenomena WWI (6 jt tentara mati sedang 2 jt lainnya hilang)
  Penghargaan terhadap kemanusiaan mendasari dibentuknya LBB 1919, setelah itu mulai berkembang studi perdamaian oleh akademisi sosial dan politik
  1908, 1920, 1930-: Mohandas Karamchand GANDHI dgn banyak ide dan praktek nirkekerasan (NK) di India melawan British; gagasan satyagraha, dan aksi langsung NK sangat berpengaruh.
  Alfred H. FRIED dari Austria, pemenang Nobel Perdamaian (1911)merintis studi-studi perdamaian yang ilmiah dan rasional (tidak berdasarkan argumen-argumen agama)
  Tahun 1956, Lewis COSER mempopulerkan Simmel lewat The Functions of Social Conflict, karya yang belakangan, di tahun 1960-an dan dengan latar Perang Vietnam, menjadi bestseller.
  1930-an: Pitirim Sorokin di Universitas Harvard mengkaji perang sejak zaman Yunani dan Romawi, dan mengawali studi tentang perang sebagai fenomena sosial; gagasan tentang dinamika sosial dan budaya di balik perang dan damai, dalam karyanya Social and Cultural Dynamics (1937)
  1940-an: di Eropa ada David Mitrany dengan Fungsionalisme sebagai mekanisme penyelesaian konflik regional.
  Karl Deutsch mengawali berbagai studi tentang teori integrasi regional, komunikasi dan nasionalisme, dan masyarakat keamanan;
  The origins of “peace studies” (including conflict resolution, conflict studies, etc.) as an academic discipline can be traced to the late 1940s, and the field has been developing steadily since then
  its development as a relatively organised and coherent group of scholars began in Stanford and Michigan in the mid-1950s (Conflict Research) and then at the Peace Research Institute in Oslo a few years later (Peace Research). French Institut Français de Polemologie, established in Paris as early as 1945, and the Lancaster Peace Research Centre (later the Richardson Institute), which was created at the University of Lancaster in 1959.
Kajian penelitian dan kelembagaan:
  Aktifitas dan riset Perdamaian à sbg basis pengetahuan ilmiah untuk gerakan-gerakan anti perang di AS.
  French Institut Français de Polemologie, established in Paris as early as 1945 and Polemologi Institute in Groningen University , Dutch. Stanford and Michigan in the mid-1950s (Conflict Research) and then at the Peace Research Institute in Oslo a few years later (Peace Research). and the Lancaster Peace Research Centre (later the Richardson Institute), which was created at the University of Lancaster in 1959.
  1960-an à SIPRI di Swedia yg menekankan perdamaian negatif, perlombaan dan perlucutan senjata, dan persoalan-persoalan keamanan internasional.
  Leonard DOOB dan Bill FOLTZ, dr Universitas Yale, mempopulerkan pendekatan Workshops utk mendamaikan pihak2 yang bertikai, dgn menerapkanya di Afrika;
  Di London (University College), John BURTON memperkenalkan Problem Solving Workshops, termasuk yg melibatkan Indonesia, Malaysia, dan dalam kasus Konfrontasi.
  Burton berperan besar membentuk pusat-pusat studi perdamaian dan konflik di universitas Kent, Maryland, George Mason, dll.
  Awal 1950an hingga 1960an dimulai pengembangan kajian tentang perdamaian dgn fokus pada penciptaan kerangka penelitian, pembentukan konsep-konsep khusus, dan berbagai macam bentuk forum diskusi dan jurnal ilmiah.
  1959: Johan GALTUNG mendirikan PRIO(Peace Research Institut Oslo) di Norwegia. Galtung memperkenalkan banyak konsep berpengaruh, seperti konflik asimetris dan teori struktural konflik. Tahun 1964 PRIO menerbitkan JPS dan kemudian Bulletin of Peace Proposals (sudah ganti nama menjadi Security Dialogue). Di Lancaster, Inggris, berdiri Richardson Peace Research Center, dan di Kanada Hannah Newcombe membentuk Peace Research Institute di Dundas.
Gerakan perdamaian:
  Anti perang Vietnam
  Muncul klpk yg dikenal sbg hippies.  Mereka adlh pemuda2 Amerika dan Eropa yg mnentang perang dan establishment. 
  Fokus mereka adlh turning in to their inner minds (dengan atau tanpa narkoba dan meditasi2 mistik) guna membentuk gaya hidup baru yg tdk mainstream. 
  Era ini gerakan antiperang Amerika dan Eropa terjembatani, a.l mll bintang2 Amerika ex: the Beatles, Bob Dylan, Cat Stevens, Joan Baez, etc
Definitions and Scope of the Peace Study:
  To start with, two compatible definitions of peace by Johan Galtung (1996:9);
  Peace is the absence/reduction of violence of all kinds.
  Peace is nonviolent and creative conflict transformation.
àFor both definitions the following holds:
  Peace work is work to reduce violence by peaceful means.
  Peace studies is the study of the conditions of peace work.


2 komentar:

  1. semangat menulis kak :D hehe...

    BalasHapus
  2. maksude piye bro. luwih cakep nek mbok elaborasi maning. :D

    BalasHapus